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Robert Sengstacke Abbott and the Black Press : Secondary Sources

Robert Sengstacke Abbott, a pioneer of America's black press, was born on St. Simons Island, Georgia. This Research Guide is an introduction to his life and and serves as a starting point for more research on the history of the black press in America.

Research Tip

A secondary source is not a first-hand or eyewitness account. This source is one step removed from the primary source. It's written after the fact. Think of a secondary source as an interpretation or analysis of a primary source. A journal article may rely on primary sources, but the article itself is a secondary source. An author who studies the speeches and diaries of a subject, and then writes a book, is creating a secondary source.

So what's a tertiary source? It's the source such as a catalog, bibliography or index that leads the researcher to primary and secondary sources.


Article Search

  • Korenweibel, Theodore Jr. "The Most Dangerous of All Negro Journals: Federal Efforts to Suppress the Chicago Defender During World War I." American Journalism 1994 11 (2): 1540168.
  • Williams, Jasmin K. "The mouthpiece of 14 million people." New York Amsterdam News 18 Apr. 2013: 28. MasterFILE Elite. Web. 11 Dec. 2013.
  • Strother, T. Ella. "The Black Image in The Chicago Defender, 1905-1975." Journalism History 1977-78 4 (4): 137-141, 156.

Black Press: Soldiers without Swords (trailer)

Available through GILExpress -- Call Number: PN4882.5 .B53 2004

PBS has a website to accompany its 1998 documentary, The Black Press: Soldiers without Swords. It includes biographies, a timeline, a film transcript and other resources. Go to:

African American Biographical Database

Search CCGA's Catalog

Selected Books